Straight, 2008-12. Steel reinforcing bars; Names of the Student Earthquake Victims Found by the Citizens’ Investigation, 2008-11. Black and white print
As much as Ai is an artist who works with traditional crafts – joinery, cabinet making, carving – he is perhaps as well known for his employment of digital culture. The internet has become one of his most essential tools through which he can communicate as a Chinese artist (his much-followed blog ran from 2006 to 2009), navigating state authority and connecting to an international audience.
His attachment to and belief in the digital world is also evident in the format of his extensive RA exhibition, in that there are no restrictions on photography throughout the space. Unusually, for such a big show at a venerable institution, the act of sharing these works, or at least the visitor’s record of encountering them, is actively encouraged (via #AiWeiwei).
Grapes, 2010. Twenty-seven stools from the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
Coca-Cola Vase, 2014. Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), vase with paint
An outspoken critic of the Chinese government, Ai has lived under surveillance for many years; his vast studio compound in Caochangdi has twenty cameras trained on it (which he apparently dresses with lanterns).
In the RA exhibition, many of the works focus on the idea of being watched, of social control and, ultimately, how art can try to respond to these imposed conditions.
Free Speech Puzzle, 2014. Hand-painted porcelain in Qing Dynasty imperial style
In one room, for example, Ai pits two cameras against each other: the artist’s video recorder versus the state’s CCTV camera. Here, the power that the objects have in keeping people in check is rendered ineffective – each has been expertly turned from a mute block of white marble.
Video Recorder, 2010. Marble
One of the most powerful pieces in the exhibition, Straight, is Ai’s response to the Sichuan earthquake of 2008 (see top two images).
Arranged in the shape of a seismic wave, a carpet of steel rods almost fills the gallery floor. Each piece of metal is taken from the site of the quake, which saw hundreds of poorly-constructed schools collapse and over 5,000 students killed.
At Ai’s direction, each rod his studio collected was hand-straightened, reverting its bent and buckled shape back to its original state. The names of the students who died – who the steel structures did not adequately protect – are rendered along the walls in the giant space.
There are other pieces which feel like memorials, too. Leading up to the entrance of the Academy, the first work on display is Tree (2009-10, 2015), Ai’s forest of eight reassembled trees composed entirely of dead trunks and branches which were pinned together with steel in his studio.
Tree, 2009-10, 2015. Tree sections and steel
The courtyard installation was funded by over 1,300 Kickstarter backers, achieving the largest ever amount raised on the platform for an art project in Europe.
In as much as the work itself is about bringing together disparate parts to make a whole – perhaps a comment on the idealisation of the China story – the means in which Tree was created, specifically for this site, also point to the power of the crowd and the reach of online support and belief.
Towards the end of the show, S.A.C.R.E.D. reveals Ai’s artistic response to his 81-day incarceration by the Chinese government in 2011. Six shoulder-height boxes meticulously recreate the prison conditions Ai faced, complete with plastic-covered walls and furniture and the two guards who watched his every movement (dressing, showering, using the toilet…).
S.A.C.R.E.D., 2012. Six dioramas; Golden Age, 2014. Wallpaper
S.A.C.R.E.D., 2012. One of six dioramas (interior)
Ai of course got through this terrible ordeal – yet the resulting dioramas reaffirm that many of the pieces in this moving show represent the outcome of a struggle, a very real assertion that the individual has a power in simply surviving. In his art, Ai also gives voice to many of those who can no longer speak out.
In the gift shop there’s a series of fridge magnets available, each bearing an Ai Weiwei quote. One reads: “A small act is worth a million thoughts.” As a visitor, you leave the show feeling enlivened by Ai’s work, that his own small acts can – and have – made a difference.
Ai Weiwei is at the Royal Academy in London from September 19 until December 13. See royalacademy.org.uk. A film of Ai Weiwei talking to Tim Marlowe about his life and work, filmed at the RA earlier this week, is available here.
Coloured Vases, 2015. Twelve Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) and four Neolithic (5,000-3,000BC) vases with industrial paint
Read more here:: Sharing in a series of small acts – Ai Weiwei at the Royal Academy